Tag Archives: microbiology

Crowd sourcing genetics: Ash die back on Facebook

Sometimes I am astounded by the sheer volume of data that we create in science nowadays. Where a few years ago we were sequencing individual genes, made up of a few thousand letters, now with a single Illumina run we can generate terabytes of data.

But what to do with that data? A lot of genomics at the moment is concerned with targeted resequencing, and bulk segregant analysis. Producing genome #1 is a lot of hard work, and doesn’t tell us all that much. Producing genomes #2 to #10 for the same species tells us a lot more: Why does wheat cultivar 1 have a higher yield than wheat cultivar 2? Why is apple variety 1 susceptible to a disease when apple variety 2 is not?  Continue reading

Rusty Research: Fighting Bread’s Biggest Bad-guy

This has been a bad year for farmers: last year’s wet summer and then the cold winter that just won’t end have scuppered one harvest and probably knocked this year’s right down too. Even when conditions are more ideal than they have been this year, farmers and breeders fight an uphill battle trying to prevent a significant proportion of the crop being lost to various pathogens. When it comes to wheat that means rustblack rust, brown rust and yellow rust. Where it strikes, yield losses are likely to be around 20% in susceptible varieties, and the problem is getting much worse. Most resistance to black rust (Puccinia triticina) is caused by a single gene, which a new resistant kind of rust (Ug99) managed to overcome in much the same way as MRSA became resistant to methicillin in our hospitals.

Close-up of wheat leaf rust (”Puccinia triticinia”) on wheat. Photo by James Kolmer. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/jun06/d519-1.htm Image Number D519-1 PD-USGov-USDA-ARS

Now scientists from Norwich, Cambridge and the USA are trying to find out how some kinds of a similar disease, yellow rust, (Puccinia striiformis or PST) are able to overcome the plant’s natural defences and infect.  Continue reading